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# Configuring Email

Lucky leverages the Carbon library for writing, sending, and testing emails. Carbon can be configured using the default file generated with a new Lucky application in config/email.cr. In that file you can add SendGrid keys and change adapters.

# Adapters

Carbon supports a growing number of adapters thanks to contributions from the community. View supported adapters

If you’ve built an adapter not listed, be sure to let us know!

# Dev Adapter

The DevAdapter ships with Carbon by default, and is useful for handling emails in a development or test environment. It can also be leveraged in production to effectively disable emails.

There are two ways to leverage the DevAdapter. The first is by telling the adapter to simply capture all Carbon output without printing or displaying the email content, which is the default:

# config/email.cr
BaseEmail.configure do |settings|
  settings.adapter = Carbon::DevAdapter.new
end

If you want to see your email content printed to your development or test server logs, you can use the optional print_emails flag:

# config/email.cr
BaseEmail.configure do |settings|
  settings.adapter = Carbon::DevAdapter.new(print_emails: true)
end

# SendGrid Adapter

The SendGridAdapter ships with Carbon by default, and once configured will send all emails through the SendGrid email service.

Initializing the SendGridAdapter is as simple as initializing the adapter with your SendGrid API key in config/email.cr:

# config/email.cr
BaseEmail.configure do |settings|
  settings.adapter = Carbon::SendGridAdapter.new(api_key: ENV["SEND_GRID_KEY"])
end

# Creating Emails

Emails are setup and configured through Crystal classes that live in your src/emails/ directory. In that directory, you should already have a base_email.cr file. This is the abstract class all of your email objects will inherit from. Use the BaseEmail for any defaults that should be applied to all of your emails (e.g. default_from address, etc…)

The views (HTML) related to the emails will reside in the src/emails/templates/{ NAME_OF_EMAIL }/ directory. For example, if your email file is named welcome_email.cr, the templates for this will live in src/emails/templates/welcome_email/.

You can also check out the PasswordResetEmail in the src/emails/ directory of a newly generated auth project for a live example.

# Email templates

There are two basic templates for emails; HTML, and TEXT. The HTML template will be where you write the raw HTML for your email. The TEXT format is used as a plain text (no HTML) email for devices and/or email apps that don’t support HTML.

Place the templates inside of each specific email directory they belong to. Then name them html.ecr, and text.ecr. For example, if your email file is named welcome_email.cr, your templates will be in src/emails/templates/welcome_email/html.ecr and src/emails/templates/welcome_email/text.ecr.

The email templates will use ECR for interpolating Crystal code. All instance variables/methods defined in your email class will be available within your template.

<!-- src/emails/templates/welcome_email/html.ecr -->
<h1>Welcome, <%= @user.name %>!</h1>
<p>...</p>
<p>Secret token <%= @token %>.</p>
<p>Thanks, <%= email_signature %></p>

# Email class

In the BaseEmail, you can set defaults that will apply to all of your emails. This includes setting special email headers, from address, or maybe helper methods you need to use in your email templates.

# src/emails/base_email.cr
abstract class BaseEmail < Carbon::Email
  macro inherited
    from default_from
    header "Return-Path", "hello@myapp.io"
    header "Message-ID", default_message_id
  end

  def default_from
    Carbon::Address.new("hello@myapp.io")
  end

  def default_message_id
    digest = OpenSSL::Digest.new("SHA256")
    digest.update(Time.utc.to_unix.to_s)
    message_id = digest.final.hexstring

    "<#{message_id}@myapp.io>"
  end

  def email_signature : String
    "The MyApp Crew"
  end
end
# src/emails/welcome_email.cr
class WelcomeEmail < BaseEmail

  # Define your own initializer with the
  # references it needs
  def initializer(@user : User)
    encryptor = Lucky::MessageEncryptor.new(secret: Lucky::Server.settings.secret_key_base)

    # Instance variables defined are available in your templates
    @token = encryptor.encrypt_and_sign("#{@user.id}:#{24.hours.from_now.to_unix_ms}")
  end

  to @user
  subject "Welcome to MyApp.io!"
  templates html, text
end

# Sending Emails

There’s two strategies to sending emails; deliver now, or deliver later.

# Deliver email now

Once your email class is defined, you can call the deliver method to send now.

WelcomeEmail.new(current_user).deliver

# Deliver email later

If you need to delay sending the email, call the deliver_later method to send later.

WelcomeEmail.new(current_user).deliver_later

read more on the deliver_later strategy.

# Testing Emails

Carbon comes with a few methods you can use in your specs to ensure emails are being sent. read more

To configure testing your emails, you’ll need to add include Carbon::Expectations in to spec/spec_helper.cr. Then to make sure that emails are cleared between specs, you need to add spec/setup/reset_emails.cr with

Spec.before_each do
  Carbon::DevAdapter.reset
end

# be_delivered expectation

The be_delivered expectation is used to assert a specific email was delivered.

This only checks that the deliver method was called. It does not account for API hanlding in other adapters.

it "delivers the email" do
  user = UserFactory.create &.email("emily@gmail.com")
  WelcomeEmail.new(user).deliver_now

  # Test that this email was sent
  WelcomeEmail.new(user).should be_delivered
end

# have_delivered_emails expectation

The have_delivered_emails is a bit more generic, and asserts that Carbon sent any email.

it "delivers the email" do
  user = UserFactory.create &.email("emily@gmail.com")
  WelcomeEmail.new(user).deliver_now

  # Test that any email was sent
  Carbon.should have_delivered_emails
end
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